Proposed Research Work
Teaching Methods, Technology, & Value
in Indology and its contribution for
‘Nation Building’: A Study
S Y N O P S I S
Man has dual nature; he has built his culture, his civilization and some moral values for humanity as well as for nationality. But it is man, who destroyed these too, when he failure from pick of our thought, failure to maintain such a higher level of feelings, or degradation in values. Indian culture has well grounded in human life. It has never been mere academic pursuit or a luxury of mind. The 20th century was the age of science and techniques but 21stcentury is the age of technology, and its influences can be observed in the living standard, civilization, culture as well as in moral values. But when science has became cruel, enemy of humanity as Nagasaki and Hiroshima are its example; it was Indian Culture, Philosophy and Teachers who came forward to save humanity in all over the world. In first decade, of 21stcentury, there are several attacks over humanity, over our religious shrines, and over our highest temple of democracy, the Parliament House, honorable courts, prominent hotels etc. were attacked. Actually they are misguided by false analysis, wrong directional teaching, and misuse of their knowledge. The main minds before it are not illiterate but degree holders, specific degree holders i.e. the field of engineering and medical etc. Today it is more necessary even previous to follow the path, such as Rabindra Nath Tagore has in lighted.
Needless to say, it was Indology, Indian Spirituality, Indian Culture, Indian Teachers, and Indian arts that came forward, put various logic on the grounds of humanity, on the basis of human values and need of peace & pleasure for all living beings. Then shri R. N. Tagore, great Indian philosopher, poet and artist & educationist, came forward to save the human and humanity in all over the world. He made a long meaningful discussion with various sensitive personalities and authorities at global level. In this connection, a meaningful discussion taken place with greatest scientist of the century, the great Albert Einstein on the topic of ‘Truth, Humanity and Reality’. At last being a worshiper of truth, the great Einstein has bounded to accept the importance of Indology, Philosophy of Truth, Philosophy of Humanity, and Philosophy of Spirituality & Religion. Einstein accepted it very clearly as his own words – “Then I am more religious than you are!”. I have read this discussion in detail, in a very deep sense, since then I think continuously – what was/is the specific things in ‘Indian Teachings’, ‘Indian methods of Teachings’, and what was/is the specific Values that had/has power to change, to convert a mind of the greatest scientist of the century. It is the fact, there are something specific, more specific than others. But question is - ‘what are these?’ how & why these teachings, these techniques are more effective, have more influence than others? If the Indian Teachings, Indian methods of Teaching have so power, so energetic, why not it should be used for the ‘Nation Building’? Needless to say about degradation in ‘Values, Nationality Responsibility and Humanity’, these are popular subjects for print media and audio-visual media. We have to search, the gravity and density of Indian Culture and Indian Arts.
Today, I feel, and everyone likely to feel that we are going downward on the basis of ‘morality’, on the basis of ‘human values’, on the basis of ‘nationality’, even have more money, more facilities than past, but we have ‘No Peace’, ‘No Pleasure’, we are running and running behind money, behind wealth at all. Modern civilization tends to concentrate on a limited order of Truth, Reality and Values. As a resulting, those who are born in this age feel these looses, remarkable percentage are seen at various level, they are spiritually displaced, morally downward and culturally up-rooted. These stories are not only of our society, of a joint family but of a single alone family too. It is quit true, in the ultra modern scientific age of 21st century we cannot think of our life without science, technique and technology. But science has its limitations; in one hand it is as boon but another hand is tool of destruction too. No doubt science has made human life very easy, but it has been misused. The great inventions of science have brought the world devastation to the world through violence. As a result we have lost our mental peace pleasure and prosperity. Science needs proper guidance. But who will guide science? We have various degrees, modern & ultra-modern degrees but 'No- Peace', 'No-Pleasure', we are running behind wealth, behind materialism. I appreciate Bani Sengupta, she is quite right while said – “Peace and Prosperity are two sides of same coin. The state of peace ensures happiness which encourages prosperity. Both are inseparable and can be attained by proper education of Science, Technology and Spirituality”. In this scenario responsibility again goes to the great Indian culture, Indian teachings and techniques, which provides a balanced path. Such a balanced path, a well balanced teaching method is necessary today.
This situation demands to search the precious, priceless things, we have loosing faster. Now it is responsibility of Indology, ‘Indian Culture and Arts’ have to come back again over the floor, to improve morality, sensitivity, humanity and nationality. Being a student of ‘Education field’, I feel my moral responsibility in this regard and I am ready with great pleasure to work in this challenging field, to search its reasons, and to suggest creative-paths to overcome, to improve morality, responsibility, humanity, democracy and nationality, if permitted. One thing will always present in my mind, how we can make - Responsible Societies, Value-Oriented Science and friendly Eco-System’. A well harmony among them is compulsory, if it is not done so the day is not far of when man would become an endangered species in the universe.
This research has positive energy and capable to fulfill the vision and goal Government of India shown in ‘Report to the People on Education – 2009-10’. It declares as – “Education is the key to the task of nation building as well as to provide requisite knowledge and skills required for sustained growth of the economy and to ensure overall progress. The Indian education system recognizes the role of education in installing the values of secularism, respect of democratic tradition and civil liberation and quest for justice. It aims are creating citizens equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and values to build in inclusive just and progressive society”. No doubt, the proposed research work and its findings will be more valuable in way to fulfill this goal.
With proper researcher would like to say some thing very clear in this regard to clarify an out line of the research project in ten main points. First chapter will be usual as an introduction chapter indicating all subject matter. In this introduction chapter, first of all researcher will start the project work to define it’s all the technical terms used within i.e. ‘teaching’, ‘teaching methods’. What is teaching? Its meanings, areas & relations – inter-relations, teaching methods, its changing forms with growth of time etc.. Second, we will discuss about tools of teachings, types of tools, changing forms of tools in various age. When researcher will discuss about tools and techniques, we will quarry that how it is involved with education as a ‘method of teaching’ and what is its importance in Indian tradition? Researcher has seen few analyses; few synthesis methods are well used in Upanishadic period, as tool and methods, in very clearly and as a symbolic in Vedic period. Later on the commentary on Vedant and in explanation of theory – methods of comparative study also well adopted as a method. Achary Shankar and Tulsidas and others spiritual teachers have well used it in their writings. It was the period while analytical; synthesis and comparative study have been well used for confidential, secret and complex teachings. In the case of Uddalak & Swetketu, Narad & Sanatkumar etc. we see how a teacher clarify the subject matter giving examples one by one, just like a science teacher has adopted today in a lab or in a class room. In this way to analytical system, synthesis and comparative study system are adopted as per demand of from complex to simple.
Third, we will try to show how a technique develops and converts into the form of ‘technology’ in the age of science? What is technology? How it influences over human mind, how it change behavior of a society, its morality, its sentiments, its vision, its thinking as a whole and its goal as well as aim of human life. How it create various types of expectations, how and why it demands more money, more wealth and bound human to convert towards the lower stage, called as degradation in humanity, responsibility, and nationality in common mind. Methods of teaching are well grounded in philosophical and spiritual thoughts. Psychology was not separated as a subject in ancient and medieval period; it was an essential part of philosophy. Everyone knows that philosophy is the root cause of every type of education, right or wrong. While materialism, dualism and Charvak thoughts was very popular, was on a pick, the aim and goal of education had curved as physical –“Eat – Drink and be Happy …we have never to born again on this earth”. This ideology was based on the philosophy – “Yaawadjeeved sukhamjeeved rinamkritvaa ghitam peebet…..kutah” in that period more degradation in morality, responsibility and nationality has been seen. A taken loan never return, how called justified? How it will create a value? How it will develop nationality and responsibility. With the growth of Monism and Adwaitism, there are development have been seen in morality, in responsibility and in nationality in the society, state and kingdom. People, leader and emperor realized the importance and need of responsibility, morality and nationality. There were various types of laws and arrangements were developed to maintain law and order, peace pleasure and harmony in various caste, religion and civilizations. In the other hand spiritual teacher, saint and sage have in lighted the lamp of values.
Fourth, we define and discuss the concept of ‘Value’ in Indology, in culture, in various philosophical thoughts and it will compare with other thoughts as per need. Yet it is very difficult to define the term ‘Value’, since it is a relative concept; relative with the ‘Good’, relative with the ‘Supreme’ and subject of Philosophy and Ethics rather than other subjects. There are two types of behaviors have been seen (a) Self oriented and (b) Value oriented. There are many definitions of value, in different caste and culture, but no doubt these all are supported to morality, responsibility and nationality. These all thoughts have included in concept of ‘Value’. Generally it is said, which is useful for society, nation and for a common man is ‘Value oriented’. The self oriented deeds are generally classified as a ‘partial deed’, even anti-social, and anti-national work and usually placed under sin and crime.
Fifth, we will discuss in deeply about ‘education’, about various types of teaching process, its changing forms with time and necessity. Now we have to see that what prominent Indian and western thinkers think by education. In one hand it will play a creative role to under standing definition, meaning and scope of education. And other hand it will provide a path for comparative study and evaluate an individual system and aim of education. In this way researcher will study Swami Vivekanad, Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Sri Aurbindo, Malviya ji, Dr. Radhakrishnan and others. To understand the western definition we have also study prominent western educationist such as Sacrates, Aristotle, Dewey, Locke, Adoms, Froebel, Kant, Sharte, Semon etc. as per demands.
When Herbel said – “Education is the development of good moral character”, he supports Indian view of education. And when Sacreties said - ‘Education means bringing out the ideas of universal validity which are latent in the mind of everyman’, he recognize and support value-oriented education, value based education, something more or less as we have mentioned above. And what Aristotle thinks while he says –‘Education develops man faculty, specializes his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, good and beauty’? We found an Indian soul of thinking in his own concept. Needless to say, ‘Satyam – Shivam and Sundaram’, the trinity of ‘Truth –Good - Beauty’ is basis of Indology, Indian culture, Indian ethics and spirituality. When Kant defines – ‘Education is the development of all those perfection of which he is capable’, we have just remember Sri Aurobindo and his famous theory of ‘Superman’ and ‘Supreme mind’. And what concepts about a teacher? We have get energy from concept of Rajmount, when he said –‘The teacher ultimate concern is to cultivate not wealth of muscle, not fulfill of knowledge, not retirement of feeling but something and purity of character’. Really such type teacher and teachings are more needed today, in reference to ‘Nation building’, to make our nation ‘India the great’, ‘Mera Bharat Mahan’. The idealogy of Swami Vivekanand may be right path, may be a suitable mirror, a proper guide line in way to our goal. He has said quite right –‘If you have assimilated fine ideals and made them the basis of your life and character. You have more education than anyone who has got by heart a whole library’. Really without an implementation, without a deed, all thoughts and ideology are likely to meaningless, as dead. We are just remembering a slogan - ‘Kriti ke bina bade shabdon ka arth najin kuchh’. We have a deep faith in ‘deed’, not in an airy ideology.
Sixth, we will discuss the term and concept of ‘technique’, its various types and how technique was converted in ‘technology’. Latter on as per demand of time, system and technology are well adopted as ‘technology’. Modern age is the age of technology; technology provides us many things to make our life easier, even luxurious. But is true too, such high quality of researches are not being utilized as applied science in our own country. On our researches other developed countries are making useful products and we buy those at a very high rate. Topmost leaders of our country realized it well. At this situation our learned Prime Minister Dr. Man Mohan Singh has expressed his unhappiness in his own words. On Jan 04, 2011 in the 98th Indian Science Congress, held at S.R.M. Chennai, as per report Prime Minister Dr. Man Mohan Singh has said –‘Sirf shodh karne se kaam nahin chalega balki shodh ko prayogshaalaaon se nikaalkar taknikon me badalkar bazaar me bhi lana hoga..80 saal poorv hamare vaigyanik C.V.Raman ne Raman effect ke siddhant ko pratipaadit kiyaa aur nobel puraskaar jita. Aaj hamare desh me Raman effect me jo upkaran istmal ho rahen hain, we videshon se kyon aayat ho rahen hain? P.M. ko afsos ie baat ka bhi hai ki yah akelaa udaharan nahin hai. Anek udaharan hain jb hamari viksit takneekon ko videshi companion ne bazaar me utaata aur hm peechhe rah gaye.
Seventh, we will define the concept of technology, its use and misused for human being. We will discuss how technology is best servant for humanity instest of a bad master. How can technology be useful for our ‘Nation building’? And, Eighth, we will discuss how ‘Techniques’ and ‘Technology’, may be work in full co-ordination to make ‘Education’, in ‘Ideal Education’ as per demand of our changing age. Today our country needs those students who utilize their skill, their technical and professional knowledge for growth of ‘Nationality’ and ‘Humanity’ instead of their own individual growth. Ninth, this project will also raise such type of questions; can there be a totally technical society without there being any values? Can the process of technological growth be reversed? Can family or human society subsist without values? After all our aim, our motto is make search the best use of all types of knowledge, that are use for human being, to develop the sentiment and gravity of responsibility as a citizen, as well as honest officers / men in all respects. Tenth, Symbols and Arts play more impressive and creative role in Indology, in its own specific way. These techniques also be discussed and evaluated as per need. Beside this any other questions which will be useful and beneficial shall be included for more verification to our aim, our motto.
Today, economy is the power of every nation. Economic development of a nation depends upon the skilled, qualified responsible and value oriented human resources. Our constitution provides the equality in opportunity to participate in professional education and technical education for all, male or female. But social and economic condition of our country makes this constitutional provision, a distance objective. There are many hindrances in participation of woman in professional and technical education. On the name of women empowerment a meaningful and overall progress have been seen. We have to appreciate and pull on at main current, especially in the field of education, from primary to university level as well as technical and research level. By sound economy and value oriented behavior, we may fulfill with feelings of ‘Nationality’ in our countrymen.
When researcher will discuss the term ‘Nationality’, she will try to best to find out its meaning, and necessity. In this connection a similar word has come to mind i.e. ‘National Integration’. In fact ‘National Integration’ is backbone of ‘Nationality’. Under this topic researcher will discuss the definition, meaning, and need of ‘Nationality’, ‘National Integration’ and ‘Nationalism’. Besides this researcher will also discuss, the root causes of hindrances for ‘Nationality’ and she will search valuable and creative suggestions to buildup a high quality of ‘Nationality’ in our countrymen. There may be many and many suggestions in this regard but keeping the valuable view of Pt. Jawaha Lal Nehru, our first Prime Minister – ‘If all is well with the universities, all would be well with the nation’, researcher will pay main focus and main attention on the role of education and quality of teacher and students for developing Nationality. Researcher will also discuss the term ‘International Understandings’ as per need and clarify the subject matter. To achieve our goal researcher will go to various educational institutions, research centers, will meet with specific authorities, specialists and will take all measures as per need of project.
Main Chapters of project:
1- Introduction: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
2 –Vedic Period: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
3- Prasthaan Trayee: (Upanishad, Vedant & Geeta) In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
4 – Jainism: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
5 – Buddhism: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
6 – Sikhism: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
7 – Muslim Period: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
8 – British Period: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
09 –After 1947: In this chapter all the above term will be deeply discussed and compare with other though as per need.
10 – Conclusion: Conclusion will be based on our final findings and result obtained.
Ram Newaj Singh Degree College, Faizabad.
Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya Awadh University
Distt. Faizabad, (U.P.)